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Silicon Single Crystals

Silicon single crystals have a wide transmission range from NIR to LWIR. Due to its low thermal conductivity, Silicon performs exceptionally well in laser systems. Additionally, with its low density (2.329 g/cm3, half that of Ge or ZnSe), silicon is ideal for weight-sensitive The Knoop Hardness of silicon is 1150, in fact,  it is one of the hardest optical materials which are transparent to lights in the 1000-6000nm region. The silicon crystal grown using the Czochralski method is particularly excellent for applications in MWIR (3-5μm) spectrum. 


After optimizing the AR coating for the wavelength range, the reflection of CZ silicon windows can be significantly reduced. However, CZ silicon exhibits a strong absorption band at 9μm. In contrast, Float Zone silicon is intentionally doped with Nitrogen and purified during production to minimize its carbon and oxygen content, thereby attenuating absorption at 9μm. As a result, FZ silicon windows are suitable for use in the LWIR (8-12μm) range.

Application of Silicon Single Crystals


  • IR optical components

  • Integrated circuits

  • Semiconductor device

  • Consumer electronics

  • Solar cell substrate


Advantages of Silicon Single Crystals


  • Low cost

  • Safe and non-toxic

  • Excellent machinability

  • Large size available


Specifications of Silicon Single Crystals


Orientation

Random or as requested

Growth Method

CZ or FZ

Size

Upon the customer’s request

Diameter Tolerance

+0/-0.1 mm

Thickness Tolerance

+/-0.1 mm

Aperture

>90%

Surface Quality

60/40~10/5 (S/D)

Parallelism

<1 arc minute

Chamfer

0.2-0.5mmx45°

Coating

Uncoated or upon customer’s request


Properties of Silicon Single Crystals


Transmission Range

1.2 to 15 μm

Refractive Index

3.4223 @ 5 μm

Reflection Loss

46.2% at 5 μm (2 surfaces)

Absorption Coefficient

0.01 cm-1 at 3 μm

dn/dT

160 x 10^-6 /°C

dn/dμ = 0

10.4 μm

Density

2.33 g/cc

Class/Structure

Cubic diamond, Fd3m

Molecular Weight

28.09

Melting Point

1420 °C

Thermal Conductivity

163.3 W m-1 K-1 at 273 K

Thermal Expansion

2.6 x 10^-6 / at 20°C

Hardness

Knoop 1150

Specific Heat Capacity

703 J Kg-1 K-1

Dielectric Constant

13 at 10 GHz

Youngs Modulus

131 GPa

Shear Modulus

79.9 GPa

Shear Modulus

79.9 GPa

Elastic Coefficients

C11=167; C12=65; C44=80

Apparent Elastic Limit

124.1MPa (18000 psi)

Poisson Ratio

0.266

Solubility

Insoluble in Water


Technical Images of Silicon Single Crystals


curve_3.jpg


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Head Office: No. 66, 8 Group, Chengbei Village, Yanguan Town, Jiaxing 314411, China;

Hangzhou Branch: Room 1012, Chunhua Bussiness Center, No. 159, Hangbo Street, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang, China
Head Office: No. 66, 8 Group, Chengbei Village, Yanguan Town, Jiaxing 314411, China;

Hangzhou Branch: Room 1012, Chunhua Bussiness Center, No. 159, Hangbo Street, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang, China
sales@ostphotonics.com; info@ostphotonics.com +86-0571-86780460