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nd yvo4 crystal
nd yvo4 crystal

YVO4 Laser Crystals

The Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4) is a positive uniaxial crystal grown with Czochralski method. It has good temperature stability and physical and mechanical properties. It is ideal for optical polarizing components because of its wide transparency range and large birefringence. It is an excellent synthetic substitute for Calcite (CaCO3) and Rutile (TiO2) crystals in many applications including fiber optic isolators and circulators, interleavers, beam displacers and other polarizing optics.


Applications of YVO4 Laser Crystals


  • Fiber-optic isolators

  • Beam displacers

  • Optical circulators


Advantages of YVO4 Laser Crystals


  • Large birefringence coefficient

  • Large absorption coefficient

  • Good transmission from 400nm to 4000nm

  • High damage threshold


Specifications of YVO4 Laser Crystals


Dimension Tolerance

±0.1mm

Flatness

λ/10 @ 632.8nm

Wavefront distortion

λ/4@ 632.8nm

Surface Quality

10/5 per MIL-O-13830B

Parallelism

10″

Perpendicularity

10′

Bevel/Chamfer

<0.1mm@45deg.

Chips

<0.1mm

Clear Aperture

>95%

Coating

AR/HR (IAD, EB, IBS) coating upon customer’s request

Damage Threshold

750MW/CM2 at 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz

Quality Warranty Period

One year under proper use


Comparison of Basic Properties Between YVO4 and Other Birefringent Crystals



YVO4

TiO2

CaCO3

LiNbO3

Thermal Expansion (/℃)

c-axis

11.4x10^-6

9.2x10^-6

26.3x10^-6

16.7x10^-6

a-axis

4.4x10^-6

7.1x10^-6

5.4x10^-6

7x10^-6

Refractive Index

no

1.9447@1550nm

2.454@1530nm

1.6346@1497nm

2.2151@1440nm

ne

2.1486@1550nm

2.710@1530nm

1.4774@1497nm

2.1413@1440nm

Birefringence(ne-no)

0.2039@1550nm

0.256@1530nm

-0.1572@1497nm

-0.0738@1440nm

Mohs Hardness

5

6.5

3

5

Deliquescence

None

None

Weak

None

Transparency range

0.4-5μm

0.4-5μm

0.35-2.3μm

0.4-5μm


Basice Properties of YVO4 Crystals


Transparency Range

High transmittance from 0.4 to 5μm

Crystal Symmetry

Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h

Crystal Cell

a=b=7.12Å,c=6.29Å

Density

4.22g/cm3

Mohs Hardness

5

Hygroscopic Susceptibility

Non-hygroscopic

Thermal Expansion Coefficient

αa = 4.43×10^-6/K;αc = 11.37×10^-6/K

Thermal Conductivity Coefficient

//C: 5.23 W/m/K; ⊥C: 5.10 W/m/K

Thermal Optical Coefficient

dna/dT = 8.5×10^-6/K;dnc/dT = 3.0×10^-6/K

Crystal Class

Positive uniaxial with no=na=nb, ne=nc

Refractive Indices, Birefringence
(Δn = ne- no)
and Walk-off Angle @ 45° (ρ)

no = 1.9929, ne = 2.2154, Δn = 0.2225, ρ= 6.04° at 630nm
no = 1.9500, ne = 2.1554, Δn = 0.2054, ρ= 5.72° at 1300nm
no = 1.9447, ne = 2.1486, Δn = 0.2039, ρ= 5.69° at 1550nm

Sellmeier Equation(λ in μm)

no²= 3.77834 + 0.069736/(λ² - 0.04724) - 0.0108133λ²
ne²= 4.59905 + 0.110534/(λ²- 0.04813) - 0.0122676λ²


Related Birefringent Crystals
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